Archive for the ‘Social Determinants of health’ Category

Infographic: Food Insecurity Among Medicaid Seniors

October 2nd, 2017 by Melanie Matthews

There’s an estimated 5.2 million seniors who are eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) but are not enrolled, according to a new infographic by Benefits Data Trust.

The infographic examines the impact of food insecurity on seniors’ health and healthcare costs and quality.

2017 Healthcare Benchmarks: Social Determinants of HealthInitiatives such as CMS’ Accountable Health Communities Model and other population health platforms encourage healthcare organizations to tackle the broad range of social, economic and environmental factors that shape an individual’s health. To underscore the need to address social determinants of health, Healthy People 2020 included “Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all” among its four overarching goals for the decade.

In one measure of their impact, 2015 research by Brigham Young University found that the social determinants of loneliness and social isolation are just as much a threat to longevity as obesity.

2017 Healthcare Benchmarks: Social Determinants of Health documents the efforts of more than 140 healthcare organizations to assess social, economic and environmental factors in patients and to begin to redesign care management to account for these factors.

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Chronic Care Plus for the Chronically Homeless: ‘Recuperative Care on Steroids’

September 28th, 2017 by Patricia Donovan

Chronic Care Plus is designed for ‘Joe,’ a prototypical vulnerable client and frequent hospital user who for some reason has not connected to either his community or healthcare system.

Illumination Foundation’s joint venture pilot, which began as an ER diversion project, now offers community-based stabilization following a hospital stay for medically vulnerable chronically homeless patients. Here, Illumination Foundation CEO Paul Leon describes the origins of Chronic Care Plus (CCP), which has been associated with a $7 million annual medical cost avoidance at all hospitals visited by the 38 CCP clients.

Back in 2008 when we first started, we began to realize that housing was healthcare. With many of the patients we were seeing, although we experienced great success, we ended up discharging them many times back into a shelter or into an assisted living or sober living situation. And although these options were better than being in the hospital or being discharged to the street, we knew we could improve on this.

So, in 2013, we implemented the Chronic Care Plus (CCP) program. Basically, CCP was recuperative care on steroids. It was recuperative care with more tightly wrapped social services and a longer length of stay. At that time, we began a pilot program in conjunction with UniHealth and St. Joseph’s Hospital in which we took the 28 most frequent users and kept them in housing for two years. We also brought these individuals through recuperative care, and wrapped them tightly with social services.

These efforts would eventually lead us to create our ‘Street2Home’ program, which we’re working on now. It implements more bridge housing and permanent supportive housing that is supplied not only by us but by collaboratives in the community. We are able to link to these collaboratives to take our individual, our ‘Joe,’ from a street to eventual permanent housing.

Source: Homelessness and Healthcare: Creating a Safety Net for Super Utilizers with Medical Bridge Housing

home visits

Homelessness and Healthcare: Creating a Safety Net for Super Utilizers with Medical Bridge Housing spotlights a California partnership that provides medical ‘bridge’ housing to homeless patients following hospitalization. This recuperative care initiative reduced avoidable hospital readmissions and ER visits and significantly lowered costs for the collaborating organizations.

Empathy Interviewing Elicits Patient’s ‘Story,’ Uncovers Social Determinants of Health

September 26th, 2017 by Patricia Donovan

social determinants of health

Healthcare must mitigate patient risk factors outside of the hospital, referred to as social determinants of health (SDOH).

If healthcare hopes to move the needle on runaway expenses and improve the health of its communities, it must first focus on patients’ social and environmental circumstances, also known as social determinants of health (SDOH).

That’s the advice of Cindy Buckels, director of population health for TAV Health, which helps healthcare organizations navigate the challenges of SDOHs.

“When we don’t address these issues as we’re addressing someone’s health, we get high readmissions, negative outcomes and dissatisfaction. There’s also increased cost and increased risk,” noted Ms. Buckels during Social Determinants of Health: Using Empathy Interviewing To Help Care Teams Understand Factors Impacting Patient Health, a September 2017 webinar now available for rebroadcast.

To encourage individuals to open up about economic, educational, nutritional, or community deficits they face that drive 60 percent of their health outcomes, TAV Health recommends care teams employ empathy interviewing, also known as motivational interviewing (MI).

“With motivational interviewing, you’re entering into a relationship with a person, not as the expert, but as a partner coming alongside to help them find their own strengths, and affirming them as a person in order to affect positive change,” said Ms. Buckels. Her presentation included a review of the four core skills of motivational interviewing (“Listen for that positive nugget,” she urges), as well as ‘back pocket’ questions to ask when the conversation stalls.

Finally, she outlined traps for care teams to avoid during an MI session, such as the urge to give advice. “Always ask permission to give information or advice. Don’t just assume that’s something that you can do, because you’ve picked up the phone and called them.”

It may take time to master, but ultimately, motivational interviewing is more effective than healthcare’s typical “Chunk-Check-Change” education approach in transforming patient ambivalence and effecting positive behavior change, she said.

Information gleaned from motivational interviewing, even minor details like a patient’s nickname or the presence of a cherished pet, should become part of the patient’s record so that every person along the care continuum who ‘touches’ that patient can access it.

“For example, if a patient’s legal name is Charlene, but she goes by Michelle, if you really want to build a relationship with her and gain her trust, you start by calling her what she goes by, which is Michelle.”

In closing, Ms. Buckels outlined a patient-centric workflow connecting all supportive organizations, healthcare providers, community organizations and family and friends within the patient’s circle of care, which places more eyes and ears on the individual. With communal oversight to report anything worrisome, the likelihood is much less that a socially supported patient will visit the ER or be admitted to the hospital.

Listen to Cindy Buckels explain the advantages of motivational interviewing over the “Chunk-Check-Change” educational approach.

SDOH Video: Tackling the Social, Economic and Environmental Factors That Shape Health

September 7th, 2017 by Patricia Donovan

Initiatives such as CMS’ Accountable Health Communities Model and other population health platforms encourage healthcare organizations to tackle the broad range of social, economic and environmental factors known as social determinants of health (SDOH) that shape an individual’s health.

This video from the Healthcare Intelligence Network highlights how healthcare organizations address SDOH factors, based on benchmarks from HIN’s 2017 Social Determinants of Health Survey.

 

 

Source: 2017 Healthcare Benchmarks: Social Determinants of Health

SDOH benchmarks

2017 Healthcare Benchmarks: Social Determinants of Health documents the efforts of more than 140 healthcare organizations to assess social, economic and environmental factors in patients and to begin to redesign care management to account for these factors. These metrics are compiled from responses to the February 2017 Social Determinants of Health survey by the Healthcare Intelligence Network.

PinnacleHealth Engagement Coaches Score Points with High-Risk Patients, Win Over Clinicians

September 7th, 2017 by Patricia Donovan

PinnacleHealth’s targeted outreach, 24/7 nurse advice line and clinician coaching have helped to bring chronic disease high utilizers back to care.

A dual engagement strategy by PinnacleHealth System that recruits both patients and providers is scoring significant gains in CAHPS® scores, clinical indicators in high risk patients, and the provision of health-literate care.

Kathryn Shradley, director of population health for PinnacleHealth System, outlined her organization’s patient engagement playbook during A Two-Pronged Patient Engagement Strategy: Closing Gaps in Care and Coaching Clinicians, an August 2017 webcast now available from the Healthcare Intelligence Network training suite.

The winning framework? Focused outreach and health coaching for high-risk, high utilizers that break down barriers to care, and a patient engagement coach to advise PinnacleHealth clinicians on the art of activating patients in self-management.

PinnacleHealth’s engagement approach, aligned with its population health strategies and based on the Health Literate Care Model, began in its ambulatory and primary care arenas. Before any coaching began, the health system schooled its staff on the value of health literacy. “Moving to a climate of patient engagement is nothing short of a culture change for many of our clinicians,” said Ms. Shradley.

To foster leadership buy-in, PinnacleHealth also strove to demonstrate bottom-line benefits of patient engagement, including lowered costs and staff turnover and increased standing in the community.

Then, having combed its registry to identify about 1,900 chronic disease patients most in need of engagement, the health system hired a health maintenance outreach coordinator who built outreach and coaching pilots designed to break down barriers to care. At the end of the six-month pilot, higher engagement and lower A1C levels were noted in more than half of these patients. For the 23 percent that remained disengaged, the outreach coordinator dug a little deeper, uncovering additional social health determinants like transportation they could address with more intensive coaching and even home visits.

At the same time, a new 24/7 nurse advice line staffed with PinnacleHealth employees continued that coaching support when the health coach was not available.

Complementing this patient outreach is a patient engagement coach, a public health-minded non-clinician that guides PinnacleHealth providers in the use of tools like motivational interviewing and teach-back during patient visits to kindle engagement.

“The engagement coach does a great job of standing at the elbow with our providers in a visit, outside of a visit, surrounding a visit, to talk about what life looks like from the patient side of view.”

Providers and staff receive one to two direct coaching sessions each year, with additional coaching available as needed.

With other elements of its patient engagement approach yet to be implemented, PinnacleHealth has observed encouraging improvements in HCAHPS scores for at least one practice that received coaching over seven months. It has also learned that by educating nurses on health-literate care interventions, it could increase HCAHPS communication scores.

Listen to an interview with Kathryn Shradley: PinnacleHealth’s Patient Engagement Coach for Clinicians: Supportive Peer at Provider’s Elbow.

Food for Thought: Nutrition Programs Reduce Hospital Visits and Readmissions by Vulnerable Populations

August 18th, 2017 by Patricia Donovan

Malnutrition is a social determinant of health that negatively impacts health outcomes.

It’s a difficult statistic to digest: one in three people enter the hospital malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, a state that impacts their recovery and increases their risk of health complications and rehospitalizations.

Two studies this week highlight the clinical benefits of addressing patients’ nutrition needs before and during hospital stays as well as savings that can result from identification of social determinants of health (SDOH) like access to nutrition that drive 85 percent of health outcomes.

In the first, a study of elderly Maryland residents by Benefits Data Trust, a national nonprofit based in Philadelphia, found that when it comes to low-income seniors, access to quality food via food stamps can also save money by reducing the number and duration of hospital visits and nursing home admissions.

In the second, research published in American Health & Drug Benefits journal and supported by Abbott found that when Advocate Health Care implemented a nutrition care program at four of its Chicago area hospitals, it showed more than $4.8 million in cost savings due to shorter hospital stays and lower readmission rates.

The Benefits Data Trust research found that participation by low-income seniors in the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) cut their odds of hospital admissions by 14 percent. The food stamps also reduced the need for ER visits by 10 percent, and cut their likelihood of going into a nursing home by nearly one quarter.

Finally, SNAP participation also led to an 8 to 10 percent drop in the number of days a patient who was admitted remained in one of these facilities.

As a result, hospitals and health care systems such as Advocate Health Care are looking at the value of nutrition to improve care and help patients get back to living a healthier life.

Starting in 2014, Advocate Health Care, the largest health system in Illinois and one of the largest accountable care organizations (ACO) in the country, implemented two models of a nutrition care program for patients at risk of malnutrition. The nutrition-focused quality improvement program, which targeted malnourished hospitalized patients, consisted of screening patients with a validated screening tool at admission, rapidly administering oral nutritional supplements, and educating patients on supplement adherence.

The leader in population health found that by doing so, it reduced 30-day readmission rates by 27 percent and the average hospital stay by nearly two days.

More recently, to evaluate the cost-savings of the Advocate approach, researchers used a novel, web-based budget impact model to assess the potential cost savings from the avoided readmissions and reduced time in hospital. Compared to the hospitals’ previous readmission rates and patients’ average length of stay, researchers found that optimizing nutrition care in the four hospitals resulted in roughly $3,800 cost savings per patient treated for malnutrition.

Given the healthcare industry’s appetite for value- and quality-based programs, SDOH screenings and the fortification of nutrition programs in both community and inpatient settings appear to be just what the doctor ordered. However, while a 2017 study on Social Determinants of Health identified widespread adoption of SDOH screenings by providers, it also documented a scarcity of supportive community services for SDOH-positive individuals.

GIVEAWAY: Enter to win a FREE copy of our upcoming Social Determinants of Health report

August 15th, 2017 by Melanie Matthews

For a chance to win 1 of 3 PDF copies of Assessing Social Determinants of Health: Screening Tools, Triage and Workflows to Link High-Risk Patients to Community Services, a $95 value, visit our Facebook page and answer the question on the following post: Which social determinant of health has the greatest impact on health outcomes in the population you serve?

For an additional entry, SHARE our Facebook post. Giveaway ends at midnight ET August 23.

The winner will be announced here and on Facebook on August 24.

Enter today at: https://goo.gl/G2EK6P.

Montefiore SDOH Screenings Leverage Learnings from Existing Pilots

August 3rd, 2017 by Patricia Donovan

Montefiore Health Systems screens patients for social determinants of health, which drive 85 percent of a person’s well-being.

Montefiore Health System’s two-tiered assessment screening program to measure social determinants of health (SDOH) positivity in its predominantly high-risk, government-insured population is inspired by existing initiatives within its own organization. Here, Amanda Parsons, MD, MBA, vice president of community and population health at Montefiore Health System, describes the planning that preceded Montefiore’s SDOH screening rollout.

I’d like to explain how we came to implement the social determinants of health screening. Many of us in New York State participate in the delivery system or full-on incentive program. It is that program that has enabled us to step back and think about using Medicaid waiver dollars to invest in the things that make a difference.

I need not tell anybody in this industry: many studies have looked at what contributes to health. We know that clinical health in and of itself contributes somewhere between 10 to 15 percent of a person’s well-being; however, so much more of their health and well-being is driven by other factors, like their environment and patient behaviors. And yet, we had not had a chance in the healthcare system to really think about what we wanted to do about that. It was really the Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) program that has allowed us to start exploring these new areas and think about how we want to collectively address them in our practices.

The way we structured our program was quite simple. We said, “If we’re going to do something about social determinants of health, let’s recognize that they are important and must be addressed, and that we have many different community-based organizations that surround or are embedded in our community that stand poised and ready to help our patients. We’re just not doing a very good job of connecting them to those organizations, so let’s backtrack and say, ‘First, we have to screen our patients using a validated survey instrument.’”

There were different sites at Montefiore that had already launched various pilots. We said, “Let’s make sure we leverage the experience and the learnings from these pilots. Then let’s think about who’s going to deal with those patients, which means we have to triage them.” For example, if somebody screens positive for domestic violence that is occurring in their home right now in the presence of children, that might require a different response from us than someone who says, “I have some difficulty paying my utilities.”

Source: Assessing Social Determinants of Health: Screening Tools, Triage and Workflows to Link High-Risk Patients to Community Services

sdoh high risk patients

Assessing Social Determinants of Health: Screening Tools, Triage and Workflows to Link High-Risk Patients to Community Services outlines Montefiore’s approach to identifying SDOH markers such as housing, finances, healthcare access and violence that drive 85 percent of patients’ well-being, and then connecting high-need individuals to community-based services.

In Montefiore Social Determinants of Health Screening, Patients’ Needs Shape SDOH Workflow

July 11th, 2017 by Patricia Donovan
 Clinical factors drive 15 percent of a patient's well-being; social determinants of health like finances drive the rest.


Clinical factors drive 15 percent of a patient’s well-being; social determinants of health like finances drive the rest.

In Dr. Amanda Parsons’ twenty-something years in healthcare, she has never implemented a program as widely embraced as Montefiore Health System’s Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) screening.

“It was one of the few times in my career that I didn’t encounter physician resistance,” said Dr. Parsons, Montefiore’s vice president of community and population health. The health system’s screening assesses patients for a host of SDOH factors that drive 85 percent of their well-being, including housing, food security, access to care or medications, finances, transportation and violence.

Following assessment, the goal is to connect individuals who screen positively for SDOHs with assistance from the area’s robust network of community organizations.

Dr. Parsons outlined her organization’s SDOH screening process, findings, challenges, and future plans during Assessing Social Determinants of Health: Collecting and Responding to Data in the Primary Care Setting, a June 2017 webcast by the Healthcare Intelligence Network now available for rebroadcast.

To get started, Montefiore piggybacked on the efforts of a few provider sites already screening for SDOHs. It then offered providers a choice of two validated screening tools, the first developed at a fifth-grade reading level, the second a more sophisticated “stressor” screen. Thirdly, it built a two-tiered triage system that leveraged social workers for individuals with very high SDOH needs, and community health workers to assist with lower-level needs.

Referrals would come from existing data banks or a host of new online referral tools, many of which Dr. Parsons mentioned during the webcast.

Interestingly, while Montefiore is fully live on an EPIC® electronic health record, SDOH screenings are currently conducted on paper, noted Dr. Parsons. This decision was one of multiple considerations in workflow creation, including respect for patient privacy.

For the time being, each Montefiore provider site selects a unique population to screen—or opts not to screen at all, if staffing is lacking. For example, one site screens all patients scheduled for annual physicals, while another screens patients recently discharged from the hospital.

In an initial readout of both screens, SDOH positivity was highest for housing and finances.

By the end of 2017, Montefiore expects to have completed more than 10,000 screenings. The health system, which serves some 700,000 patients, also plans to boost its ranks of community health workers, broadening its referral network.

Looking ahead, Montefiore will address a number of key administrative and emotional barriers. Some patient issues, like overcoming the stigma of seeing a social worker, can be minimized with a simple scripting change. Others, like alleviating an individual’s financial pain or putting a roof over a family’s head, are much more complicated.

Also needed is a process to confirm a patient has “gone that last mile” and obtained the recommended support, Dr. Parsons added.

As it expands SDOH screening, Montefiore is banking on that swell of engaged providers. As part of its mission to provide comprehensive, ‘cradle-to-grave’ care for its mostly Medicaid and otherwise government-insured population, Montefiore “intervenes even when there is no payment structure for that work,” said Dr. Parsons.

Falling into that category is SDOH screening. “Much of the Social Determinants of Health work is not very billable in the traditional paper service model, but it is incredibly important to do, regardless.”

Listen to an interview with Dr. Parsons on adapting SDOH screenings for different populations.
TW_Montefiore_SDOH_webinar0617

2017 ACO Snapshot: As Adoption Swells, Social Determinants of Health High on Accountable Care Agenda

June 29th, 2017 by Patricia Donovan

Nearly two-thirds of 2017 ACO Survey respondents attribute a reduction in hospital readmissions to accountable care activity.

Healthcare organizations may have been wary back in 2011, when the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) first introduced the accountable care organization (ACO) model. The HHS viewed the ACO framework as a tool to contain skyrocketing healthcare costs.

Fast-forward six years, and most resistance to ACOs appears to have dissipated. According to 2017 ACO metrics from the Healthcare Intelligence Network (HIN), ACO adoption more than doubled from 2013 to 2017, with the number of healthcare organizations participating in ACOs rising from 34 to 71 percent.

During that same period, the percentage of ACOs using shared savings models to reimburse its providers increased from 22 to 33 percent, HIN’s fourth comprehensive ACO snapshot found.

And in the spirit of delivering patient-centered, value-based care, ACOs have embraced a whole-person approach. In new ACO benchmarks identified this year, 37 percent of ACOs assess members for social determinants of health (SDOH). In support of that trend, the 2017 survey also found that one-third of responding ACOs include behavioral health providers.

Since that first accountable care foray by HHS, the number of ACO models has proliferated. The May 2017 HIN survey found that, of current ACO initiatives, the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) remains the front runner, with MSSP participation hovering near the same 66 percent level attained in HIN’s 2013 ACO snapshot.

Looking ahead to ACO models launching in 2018, 24 percent of respondents will embrace the Medicare ACO Track 1+ Model, a payment design that incorporates more limited downside risk.

This 2017 accountable care snapshot, which reflects feedback from 104 hospitals, health systems, payors, physician practices and others, also captured the following trends:

  • More than half—57 percent—participate in the Medicare Chronic Care Management program;
  • Cost and provider reimbursement are the top ACO challenges for 18 percent of 2017 respondents;
  • Clinical outcomes are the most telling measure of ACO success, say 83 percent of responding ACOs;
  • Twenty-nine percent of respondents not currently administering an ACO expect to launch an accountable care organization in the coming year;
  • 75 percent expect CMS to try and proactively assign Medicare beneficiaries to physician ACO panels to boost patient and provider participation.

Download HIN’s latest white paper, “Accountable Care Organizations in 2017: ACO Adoption Doubles in 4 Years As Shared Savings Gain Favor,” for a summary of May 2017 feedback from 104 hospitals and health systems, multi-specialty physician practices, health plans, and others on ACO activity.